Dr Mark Gardner

Principal Lecturer

+44 20 7911 5000 ext 69020
115 New Cavendish Street London W1W 6UW

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Mark Gardner joined the University of Westminster in 2000, and is now Principal Lecturer in Psychology. He is course leader for BSc Psychology, and serves on the Undergraduate Education Committee of the British Psychological Society.

Mark was trained at University College London. His PhD research examined evidence for imitation in animals under the supervision of Prof Cecilia Heyes. His postdoctoral research, as part of a Wellcome Trust funded project led by Prof Lucy Yardley, examined the role of attention in normal and abnormal balance system function.

I currently lead a core module in Cognitive Psychology taken by all undergraduate students on Psychology BSc (Honours) and Cognitive Neuroscience BSc (Honours), as well as a popular final year option module in neuropsychology called Cognitive Disorders. My teaching in these, and other, modules focuses on the psychology of normal and abnormal perception.

I help to promote innovation and excellence in education within the University by contributing to the University of Westminster's ground-breaking Broad Vision project. I currently teach on the Art/Science collaboration module that resulted from this project. This is an option module that may be taken by students on Psychology BSc (Honours) during their second year.

As an active member of the Undergraduate Education Committee of the British Psychological Society (BPS), I contribute to the development of the discipline and help to promote standards of undergraduate psychology education nationally.

The main focus of my research is on the cognitive processes underlying spatial perspective-taking. This work explores how we mentally transform our own perspective so that it aligns with the perspective of another person. My collaborators and I have been examining the role played by response inhibition in adopting a new perspective, how mental simulation is involved in transforming current perspective, and the modulation of these processes by strategy.

Key reference:

Gardner, M.R., Brazier, M., Edmonds, C.J., Gronholm, P.C. (2013). Strategy modulates spatial perpective-taking: evidence for dissociable disembodied and embodied routes. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

In collaboration with the Nutrition, Hydration and Cognition lab at UEL, I am also investigating the effects of hydration on cognitive performance. Fundamental work has concentrated on developing a better understanding of the effect of water supplementation on cognitive performance. This research has provided foundations for applied research, for example the association between fluid availability and students' performance in exams, which has attracted media interest www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-17741653.

Key reference:

Edmonds, C.J., Gardner, M.R., Crombie, R., Bailleux, H. & Dawkins, L. (2013). Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults. Appetite, 60, 148-153.

2018

Implicit mentalising during level-1 visual perspective-taking indicated by dissociation with attention orienting (2018)
Gardner, M., Bileviciute A.P. and Edmonds, C.J. 2018. Implicit mentalising during level-1 visual perspective-taking indicated by dissociation with attention orienting. Vision. 2 (1), p. 3.
'Spontaneous' Visual Perspective-Taking Mediated by Attention Orienting that is Voluntary and not Reflexive (2018)
Gardner, M., Taylor, D.A., Hull, Z. and Edmonds, C.J. 2018. 'Spontaneous' Visual Perspective-Taking Mediated by Attention Orienting that is Voluntary and not Reflexive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 71 (4), pp. 1020-1029.

2017

Developing cross-disciplinary education by facilitating collaboration within and between diverse teams (2017)
Gardner, M. 2017. Developing cross-disciplinary education by facilitating collaboration within and between diverse teams. Educational Developments. 18 (2), pp. 14-17.
Visual mismatch negativity to masked stimuli presented at very brief presentation rates (2017)
Flynn, M., Liasis, A, Gardner, M. and Towell, A. 2017. Visual mismatch negativity to masked stimuli presented at very brief presentation rates. Experimental Brain Research. 235 (2), pp. 555-563.
Dose-Response Effects of Water Supplementation on Cognitive Performance and Mood in Children and Adults (2017)
Edmonds, C.J., Crosbie, L., Fatima, F., Hussain, M., Jacob, N. and Gardner, M. 2017. Dose-Response Effects of Water Supplementation on Cognitive Performance and Mood in Children and Adults. Appetite. 108, pp. 464-470.
Embodied perspective-taking indicated by selective disruption from aberrant self motion (2017)
Gardner, M., Stent, C., Mohr, C. and Golding, J.F. 2017. Embodied perspective-taking indicated by selective disruption from aberrant self motion. Psychological Research. 81 (2), pp. 480-489.

2016

Observed bodies generate object-based spatial codes (2016)
Taylor, A., Flynn, M., Edmonds, C.J. and Gardner, M. 2016. Observed bodies generate object-based spatial codes. Acta Psychologica. 169, pp. 71-78.

2013

Strategy modulates spatial perspective-taking: evidence for dissociable disembodied and embodied routes (2013)
Gardner, M., Brazier, M., Edmonds, C.J. and Gronholm, P.C. 2013. Strategy modulates spatial perspective-taking: evidence for dissociable disembodied and embodied routes. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
Subjective thirst moderates changes in speed of responding associated with water consumption (2013)
Edmonds, C.J., Crombie, R. and Gardner, M. 2013. Subjective thirst moderates changes in speed of responding associated with water consumption. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
Drink availability is associated with enhanced examination performance in adults (2013)
Pawson, C., Gardner, M., Doherty, S., Martin, L., Soares, R. and Edmonds, C.J. 2013. Drink availability is associated with enhanced examination performance in adults. Psychology Teaching Review. 19 (1), pp. 57-66.
Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults (2013)
Edmonds, C.J., Crombie, R., Ballieux, H., Gardner, M. and Dawkins, L. 2013. Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults. Appetite. 60, pp. 148-153.

2012

Sex differences in components of imagined perspective transformation (2012)
Gardner, M., Sorhus, I., Edmonds, C.J. and Potts, R. 2012. Sex differences in components of imagined perspective transformation. Acta Psychologica. 140 (1), pp. 1-6.
Empathic and non-empathic routes to visuospatial perspective-taking (2012)
Gronholm, P.C., Flynn, M., Edmonds, C.J. and Gardner, M. 2012. Empathic and non-empathic routes to visuospatial perspective-taking. Consciousness and Cognition. 21 (1), pp. 494-500.

2011

Domain general mechanisms account for imagined transformations of whole body perspective (2011)
Gardner, M. and Potts, R. 2011. Domain general mechanisms account for imagined transformations of whole body perspective. Acta Psychologica. 137 (3), pp. 371-381.

2010

Hand dominance influences the processing of observed bodies (2010)
Gardner, M. and Potts, R. 2010. Hand dominance influences the processing of observed bodies. Brain and Cognition. 73 (1), pp. 35-40.

2009

Can illusory deviant stimuli be used as attentional distractors to record vMMN in a passive three stimulus oddball paradigm? (2009)
Flynn, M., Liasis, A., Gardner, M., Boyd, S. and Towell, A. 2009. Can illusory deviant stimuli be used as attentional distractors to record vMMN in a passive three stimulus oddball paradigm? Experimental Brain Research. 197 (2), pp. 153-161.

2007

Hopping, skipping or jumping to conclusions? Clarifying the role of the JTC bias in delusions (2007)
Fine, C., Gardner, M., Craigie, J. and Gold, I. 2007. Hopping, skipping or jumping to conclusions? Clarifying the role of the JTC bias in delusions. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 12 (1), pp. 46-77.

2006

P36.42 Identification of a pre-attentive visual discrimination response (2006)
Flynn, M., Liasis, A., Gardner, M. and Towell, A. 2006. P36.42 Identification of a pre-attentive visual discrimination response. Clinical Neurophysiology. 117 (Supplement 1), p. 194.

2002

Attentional demands of continuously monitoring orientation using vestibular information (2002)
Yardley, L., Papo, D., Bronstein, A.M., Gresty, M.A., Gardner, M., Lavie, N. and Luxon, L. 2002. Attentional demands of continuously monitoring orientation using vestibular information. Neuropsychologia. 40 (4), pp. 373-383.

2001

Interference between postural control and mental task performance in patients with vestibular disorder and healthy controls (2001)
Yardley, L., Gardner, M., Bronstein, A.M., Davies, R., Buckwell, D. and Luxon, L. 2001. Interference between postural control and mental task performance in patients with vestibular disorder and healthy controls. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 71 (1), pp. 48-52.

2000

Seeing how it's done: matching conditions for observer rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) in the bidirectional control (2000)
Ray, E.D., Gardner, M. and Heyes, C. 2000. Seeing how it's done: matching conditions for observer rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) in the bidirectional control. Animal Cognition. 3 (3), pp. 147-157.
Book review: Budiansky, S. (1998). If a lion could talk: How animals think. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Pp. 234. ISBN 0297819321. £20.00 (Hbk). ISBN 0753807726. £7.99 (Pbk). (2000)
Gardner, M. 2000. Book review: Budiansky, S.
. If a lion could talk: How animals think. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Pp. 234. ISBN 0297819321. £20.00 (Hbk). ISBN 0753807726. £7.99 (Pbk). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section B. 53 (3), pp. 286-287.

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