Professor Phil Evans

Emeritus Professor

115 New Cavendish Street London W1W 6UW

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Phil read Moral Sciences (Philosophy) and Natural Sciences (Experimental Psychology) for his first degree at Emmanuel College, in the University of Cambridge, UK. He completed his PhD at the University of Wales at Cardiff. He has published widely, including 4 books, over 60 peer-reviewed journal articles, and over 20 book chapters. He is an elected Fellow of the International Organization of Psychophysiology and a member of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Psychophysiology. He has held posts of Visiting Professor at State University of New York at Stony Brook, University of Hong Kong, and City University of Hong Kong. His current major research interest is investigating levels and reactivity of neuroendocrine and immune system measures in relation to stress manipulations, psychosocial variables and health status. In the early nineties, Phil, together with colleagues Angela Clow and Frank Hucklebridge, founded the Psychophysiology & Stress Research Group at the University of Westminster, which was the first UK research group systematically to undertake research in the nascent area of Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI).

At the University of Westminster, Phil has previously occupied the posts of Head of Psychology Department, Associate Head of the School of Social Sciences, and Director of Research for the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities. Phil has recently retired from his full-time post, but continues to make a part-time contribution to research work and PhD supervision within the Department of Psychology.

Psychophysiology; psychoneuroimmunology; health psychology.

Psychophysiology & Stress Research Group

2016

Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: Real-time analysis and curvilinear effects of sample timing inaccuracy (2016)
Smyth, N., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Evans, P. 2016. Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: Real-time analysis and curvilinear effects of sample timing inaccuracy. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 74, pp. 380-386.
Relationship between post-awakening salivary cortisol and melatonin secretion in healthy participants (2016)
Ramachandran, N., Smyth, N., Thorn, L., Eardley, A.F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2016. Relationship between post-awakening salivary cortisol and melatonin secretion in healthy participants. Stress. 19 (2), pp. 260-263.

2015

The effect of progressive muscle relaxation on daily cortisol secretion (2015)
Chellew, K., Evans, P., Fornes-Vives, J., Pérez, G. and Garcia-Banda, G. 2015. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation on daily cortisol secretion. Stress. 18 (5), pp. 538-544.
Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits (2015)
Downey, L.A., Sands, H., Jones, L., Clow, A., Evans, P., Stalder, T. and Parrott, A.C. 2015. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits. Human Psychopharmacology. 30 (3), pp. 199-207.
Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: expert consensus guidelines (2015)
Stalder, T., Kirschbaum, C., Kudielka, B.M., Adam, E.K., Pruessner, J.C., Wüst, S., Dockray, S., Smyth, N., Evans, P., Hellhammer, D.H., Miller, R., Wetherell, M.A., Lupien, S., Clow, A. and Jens C. Pruessner 2015. Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: expert consensus guidelines. Psychoneuroendocrinology. PNEC (63), pp. 414-432.
Detailed time course of the cortisol awakening response in healthy participants (2015)
Smyth, N., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2015. Detailed time course of the cortisol awakening response in healthy participants. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 62, pp. 200-203.
Post awakening salivary cortisol secretion and trait well-being: The importance of sample timing accuracy (2015)
Smyth, N., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2015. Post awakening salivary cortisol secretion and trait well-being: The importance of sample timing accuracy. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 58, pp. 141-151.
Anxious attachment style predicts an enhanced cortisol response to group psychosocial stress (2015)
Smyth, N., Thorn, L., Oskis, A., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2015. Anxious attachment style predicts an enhanced cortisol response to group psychosocial stress. Stress. 18 (2), pp. 143-148.
The cortisol awakening response predicts same morning executive function: results from a 50-day case study (2015)
Law, R., Evans, P., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2015. The cortisol awakening response predicts same morning executive function: results from a 50-day case study. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress. 18 (6), pp. 616-621.

2014

Day differences in the cortisol awakening response predict day differences in synaptic plasticity in the brain (2014)
Clow, A., Law, R., Evans, P., Vallence, A.M., Hodyl, N.A., Goldsworthy, M.R., Rothwell, J.R. and Ridding, M.C. 2014. Day differences in the cortisol awakening response predict day differences in synaptic plasticity in the brain. Stress. 17 (3), pp. 219-223.

2013

Salivary cortisol as a biomarker in social science research (2013)
Thorn, L., Smyth, N., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2013. Salivary cortisol as a biomarker in social science research. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 7 (9), pp. 605-625.
Delays of 5–15 min between awakening and the start of saliva sampling matter in assessment of the cortisol awakening response (2013)
Smyth, N., Clow, A., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F. and Evans, P. 2013. Delays of 5–15 min between awakening and the start of saliva sampling matter in assessment of the cortisol awakening response. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 38 (9), pp. 1476-1483.
State variation in the cortisol awakening response (2013)
Law, R., Hucklebridge, F., Thorn, L., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2013. State variation in the cortisol awakening response. Stress. 16 (5), pp. 483-492.

2011

Seasonal differences in the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion in healthy participants and those with self-assessed seasonal affective disorder (2011)
Thorn, L., Evans, P., Cannon, A., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2011. Seasonal differences in the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion in healthy participants and those with self-assessed seasonal affective disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 36 (6), pp. 816-823.
A randomised placebo-controlled trial of oral hydrocortisone for treating tobacco withdrawal symptoms (2011)
Ussher, M., Aveyard, P., Reid, F., West, R., Evans, P., Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F., Fuller, J., Ibison, J. and Steptoe, A. 2011. A randomised placebo-controlled trial of oral hydrocortisone for treating tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Psychopharmacology. 216 (1), pp. 43-51.
Associations between the cortisol awakening response and heart rate variability (2011)
Stalder, T., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2011. Associations between the cortisol awakening response and heart rate variability. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 36 (4), pp. 454-462.
The diurnal cortisol cycle and cognitive performance in the healthy old (2011)
Evans, P., Fredhoi, C., Loveday, C., Hucklebridge, F., Aitchison, E., Forte, D. and Clow, A. 2011. The diurnal cortisol cycle and cognitive performance in the healthy old. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 79 (3), pp. 371-377.
The diurnal cortisol cycle and cognitive performance in the healthy old (2011)
Evans, P., Fredhoi, C., Loveday, C., Hucklebridge, F., Aitchison, E., Forte, D. and Clow, A. 2011. The diurnal cortisol cycle and cognitive performance in the healthy old. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 79 (3), pp. 371-377.

2010

State associations with the cortisol awakening response in healthy females (2010)
Stalder, T., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2010. State associations with the cortisol awakening response in healthy females. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 35 (8), pp. 1245-1252.
The cortisol awakening response: more than a measure of HPA axis function (2010)
Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F., Stalder, T., Evans, P. and Thorn, L. 2010. The cortisol awakening response: more than a measure of HPA axis function. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 35 (1), pp. 97-103.
Humor attenuates the cortisol awakening response in healthy older men (2010)
Lai, J.C.L., Chong, A.M.L., Siu, O.T., Evans, P., Chan, C.L.W. and Ho, R.T.H. 2010. Humor attenuates the cortisol awakening response in healthy older men. Biological Psychology. 84 (2), pp. 375-380.
Associations between psychosocial state variables and the cortisol awakening response in a single case study (2010)
Stalder, T., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2010. Associations between psychosocial state variables and the cortisol awakening response in a single case study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 35 (2), pp. 209-214.

2009

Use of a single case study design to examine state variation in the cortisol awakening response: relationship with time of awakening (2009)
Stalder, T., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2009. Use of a single case study design to examine state variation in the cortisol awakening response: relationship with time of awakening. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 34 (4), pp. 607-614.
The cortisol awakening response, seasonality, stress and arousal: a study of trait and state influences (2009)
Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2009. The cortisol awakening response, seasonality, stress and arousal: a study of trait and state influences. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 34 (3), pp. 299-306.

2008

Caregiving is associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva (2008)
Gallagher, S., Phillips, A.C., Evans, P., Der, G., Hunt, K. and Carroll, D. 2008. Caregiving is associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 22 (4), pp. 565-572.

2007

Cortisol secretory activity in older people in relation to positive and negative well-being (2007)
Evans, P., Forte, D., Jacobs, C., Fredhoi, C., Aitchison, E., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2007. Cortisol secretory activity in older people in relation to positive and negative well-being. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 32 (8-10), pp. 922-930.

2006

Suspected non-adherence and weekend versus week day differences in the awakening cortisol response (2006)
Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2006. Suspected non-adherence and weekend versus week day differences in the awakening cortisol response. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 31 (8), pp. 1009-1018.
Reduction in cortisol after smoking cessation among users of nicotine patches (2006)
Ussher, M., West, R., Evans, P., Steptoe, A., McEwen, A., Clow, A. and Hucklebridge, F. 2006. Reduction in cortisol after smoking cessation among users of nicotine patches. Psychosomatic Medicine. 68 (2), pp. 299-306.
'I think that it's a pain in the ass that I have to stand outside in the cold and have a cigarette': representations of smoking and experiences of disapproval in UK and Greek smokers (2006)
Louka, P., Maguire, M., Evans, P. and Worrell, M. 2006. 'I think that it's a pain in the ass that I have to stand outside in the cold and have a cigarette': representations of smoking and experiences of disapproval in UK and Greek smokers. Journal of Health Psychology. 11 (3), pp. 441-451.
Post-awakening cortisol secretion during basic military training (2006)
Clow, A., Edwards, S., Owen, G., Evans, G., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Casey, A. 2006. Post-awakening cortisol secretion during basic military training. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 60 (1), pp. 88-94.
Stressful life events are associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva in the middle aged and elderly (2006)
Phillips, A.C., Carroll, D., Evans, P., Bosch, J.A., Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F. and Der, G. 2006. Stressful life events are associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva in the middle aged and elderly. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 20 (2), pp. 191-197.
Salivary cortisol, stress and arousal following five weeks training in kinesthetic meditation to undergraduate students (2006)
Bullen, V., Fredhoi, C., Bloom, W., Povey, J., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2006. Salivary cortisol, stress and arousal following five weeks training in kinesthetic meditation to undergraduate students. Journal of Holistic Healthcare. 3 (3), pp. 34-38.

2005

Optimism, positive affectivity, and salivary cortisol (2005)
Lai, J.C.L., Evans, P., Ng, S.H., Chong, A.M.L., Siu, O.T., Chan, C.L.W., Ho, S.M.Y., Ho, R.T.H., Chan, P. and Chan, C.C. 2005. Optimism, positive affectivity, and salivary cortisol. British Journal of Health Psychology. 10 (4), pp. 467-484.
The diurnal patterns of the adrenal steroids cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in relation to awakening (2005)
Hucklebridge, F., Hussain, T., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2005. The diurnal patterns of the adrenal steroids cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in relation to awakening. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 30 (1), pp. 51-57.

2004

Acute reduction in secretory immunoglobulin A following smoking cessation (2004)
Ussher, M., West, R., Evans, P., Steptoe, A., McEwen, A., Clow, A. and Hucklebridge, F. 2004. Acute reduction in secretory immunoglobulin A following smoking cessation. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 29 (10), pp. 1335-1340.
The effect of dawn simulation on the cortisol response to awakening in healthy participants (2004)
Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Esgate, A., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2004. The effect of dawn simulation on the cortisol response to awakening in healthy participants. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 29 (7), pp. 925-930.
The awakening cortisol response: methodological issues and significance (2004)
Clow, A., Thorn, L., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. 2004. The awakening cortisol response: methodological issues and significance. Stress. 7 (1), pp. 29-37.

2003

Components of the diurnal cortisol cycle in relation to upper respiratory symptoms and perceived stress (2003)
Edwards, S., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Evans, P. 2003. Components of the diurnal cortisol cycle in relation to upper respiratory symptoms and perceived stress. Psychosomatic Medicine. 65 (2), pp. 320-327.
An investigation into asymmetrical cortical regulation of salivary S-IgA in conscious man using transcranial magnetic stimulation (2003)
Clow, A., Lambert, S., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Higuchi, K. 2003. An investigation into asymmetrical cortical regulation of salivary S-IgA in conscious man using transcranial magnetic stimulation. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 47 (1), pp. 57-64.

2002

The awakening cortisol response: no evidence for an influence of body posture (2002)
Hucklebridge, F., Mellins, J., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2002. The awakening cortisol response: no evidence for an influence of body posture. Life Sciences. 71 (6), pp. 639-646.
Ultrasound measures of bone and the diurnal free cortisol cycle: a positive association with the awakening cortisol response in healthy premenopausal women (2002)
Brooke-Wavell, K., Clow, A., Ghazi-Noori, S., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. 2002. Ultrasound measures of bone and the diurnal free cortisol cycle: a positive association with the awakening cortisol response in healthy premenopausal women. Calcified Tissue International. 70 (6), pp. 463-468.
Low frequency noise enhances cortisol among noise sensitive subjects during work performance (2002)
Persson Waye, K., Bengtsson, J., Rylander, R., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2002. Low frequency noise enhances cortisol among noise sensitive subjects during work performance. Life Sciences. 70 (7), pp. 745-758.

2001

Association between time of awakening and diurnal cortisol secretory activity (2001)
Edwards, S., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2001. Association between time of awakening and diurnal cortisol secretory activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 26 (6), pp. 613-622.
Exploration of the awakening cortisol response in relation to diurnal cortisol secretory activity (2001)
Edwards, S., Clow, A., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. 2001. Exploration of the awakening cortisol response in relation to diurnal cortisol secretory activity. Life Sciences. 68 (18), pp. 2093-2103.

2000

Modulation of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva; response to manipulation of mood (2000)
Hucklebridge, F., Lambert, S., Clow, A., Warburton, D.M., Evans, P. and Sherwood, N. 2000. Modulation of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva; response to manipulation of mood. Biological Psychology. 53 (1), pp. 25-35.
The cortisol response to normal and nocturnal awakening (2000)
Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A., Rahman, H. and Evans, P. 2000. The cortisol response to normal and nocturnal awakening. Journal of Psychophysiology. 14 (1), pp. 24-28.

1999

Endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity and HPA activation in the pig (1999)
Clow, A., Vellucci, S.V., Parrott, R.F., Hucklebridge, F., Sen, S. and Evans, P. 1999. Endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity and HPA activation in the pig. Life Sciences. 66 (1), pp. 35-41.
The awakening cortisol response and blood glucose levels (1999)
Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A., Abeyguneratne, T., Huezo-Diaz, P. and Evans, P. 1999. The awakening cortisol response and blood glucose levels. Life Sciences. 64 (11), pp. 931-937.

1998

The relationship between salivary secretory immunoglobulin A and cortisol: neuroendocrine response to awakening and the diurnal cycle (1998)
Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Evans, P. 1998. The relationship between salivary secretory immunoglobulin A and cortisol: neuroendocrine response to awakening and the diurnal cycle. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 31 (1), pp. 69-76.
Mind-body influences on immunity: lateralised control, stress, individual differences, and prophylaxis (1998)
Gruzelier, J., Clow, A., Evans, P., Lazar, I. and Walker, L. 1998. Mind-body influences on immunity: lateralised control, stress, individual differences, and prophylaxis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 851, pp. 487-494.
The relationship between circadian patterns of salivary cortisol and endogenous inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (1998)
Hucklebridge, F., Sen, S., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1998. The relationship between circadian patterns of salivary cortisol and endogenous inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A. Life Sciences. 62 (25), pp. 2321-2328.
Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular responses to mental arithmetic and cold pressor (1998)
Willemsen, G., Ring, C., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1998. Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular responses to mental arithmetic and cold pressor. Psychophysiology. 35 (3), pp. 252-259.
Regional and molecular separation of the four bioactivities of ‘tribulin’ (1998)
Hucklebridge, F., Doyle, A., Pang, F.Y., Adlard, M., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1998. Regional and molecular separation of the four bioactivities of ‘tribulin’. Neuroscience Letters. 240 (1), pp. 29-32.

1997

The cortisol response to psychological challenge is preceded by a rise in endogenous inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. (1997)
Clow, A., Patel, S., Najafi, M., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. 1997. The cortisol response to psychological challenge is preceded by a rise in endogenous inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Life Sciences. 61 (5), pp. 567-575.
Endogenous monoamine oxidase A inhibitory activity (tribulin), measured in saliva, is related to cardiovascular reactivity in normal individuals (1997)
Clow, A., Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F., Carroll, D., Ring, C., Shrimpton, J., Willemsen, G. and Evans, P. 1997. Endogenous monoamine oxidase A inhibitory activity (tribulin), measured in saliva, is related to cardiovascular reactivity in normal individuals. Journal of Neural Transmission (supplement). 52, pp. 77-83.
Modulation of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva in relation to an acute episode of stress and arousal (1997)
Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Evans, P. 1997. Modulation of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva in relation to an acute episode of stress and arousal. Journal of Psychophysiology. 11 (3), pp. 248-255.

1996

Positive but not negative life events predict vulnerability to upper respiratory illness (1996)
Evans, P., Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 1996. Positive but not negative life events predict vulnerability to upper respiratory illness. British Journal of Health Psychology. 1 (4), pp. 339-348.
Salivary monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitory activities correlate with stress (1996)
Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1996. Salivary monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitory activities correlate with stress. Life Sciences. 59 (16), pp. 1357-1362.
Urinary output of endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity is related to everyday stress (1996)
Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1996. Urinary output of endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity is related to everyday stress. Life Sciences. 58 (20), pp. 1723-1730.
Urinary cortisol and endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitor(s), but not isatin, are raised in anticipation of stress and/or arousal in normal individuals (1996)
Doyle, A., Pang, F.Y., Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1996. Urinary cortisol and endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitor(s), but not isatin, are raised in anticipation of stress and/or arousal in normal individuals. Stress Medicine. 12 (1), pp. 43-49.

1994

Stress, arousal, Cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A in students undergoing assessment (1994)
Evans, P., Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Pang, F.Y. 1994. Stress, arousal, Cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A in students undergoing assessment. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 33 (4), pp. 575-576.
Dysphoria and immune status in postpartum women (1994)
Hucklebridge, F., Smith, M.D., Clow, A., Evans, P., Glover, V., Taylor, A., Adams, D. and Lydyard, P.M. 1994. Dysphoria and immune status in postpartum women. Biological Psychology. 37 (3), pp. 199-206.

1993

The relationship between secretory immunity, mood and life-events (1993)
Evans, P., Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Walters, N. 1993. The relationship between secretory immunity, mood and life-events. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 32 (2), pp. 227-236.

2000

Mind, immunity and health: the science of psychoneuroimmunology (2000)
Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2000. Mind, immunity and health: the science of psychoneuroimmunology. London Free Association.

1998

The role and regulation of monoamines in stress (1998)
Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F. and Evans, P. 1998. The role and regulation of monoamines in stress. in: Levi, A., Grauer, E., Ben-Nathan, D. and de Kloet, E.R. (ed.) New frontiers in stress research: modulation of brain function Amsterdam Harwood Academic. pp. 21-31

1996

Tribulin and stress in normal individuals (1996)
Doyle, A., Pang, F.Y., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1996. Tribulin and stress in normal individuals. in: McCarty, R., Aguilera, G., Sabban, E. and Kvetnansky, R. (ed.) Stress: molecular genetic and neurobiological advances Amsterdam Harwood Academic.

1995

Secretory immunoglobulin A as convenient biomarker in health survey work (1995)
Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Doyle, A. 1995. Secretory immunoglobulin A as convenient biomarker in health survey work. in: Rodriguez-Martin, J. (ed.) Health psychology and quality of life research: Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society Alicante University of Alicante.

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