The effect of Labour Earnings on Post Retirement Income
Roberta Adami, Orla Gough, Angeliki Theophilopoulou (2013), The effect of Labour Earnings on Post Retirement Income, Journal of Economic Studies, Vol. 40 (3)
This paper investigates how changes in the distribution of pre retirement labour earnings affect post-retirement income in the UK. We estimate a PROBIT model and perform a counterfactual simulation to assess the effects of changes in the earnings distributions on pensions in the UK. We use data from the British Household Panel Survey. Our findings suggest that the distribution of labour earnings before retirement play a considerable role in the pension distribution of current retirees, particularly for low and medium incomes in the period 1991-2007 for the UK. Improvements in Social Security have lifted many out of poverty; however there is still a gender gap as we find that the current system of state benefits has not improved substantially pension income dispersion among women. On the other hand, changes in labour earning distributions have benefited more poor female pensioners than male.
Saving for Retirement: A Review of Ethnic Minorities in the UK
Roberta Adami and Orla Gough (2013), Saving for Retirement: A Review of Ethnic Minorities in the UK, Social Policy and Society, 12, (1) pp. 147 – 161
This article examines the saving behaviour of ethnic minorities in the UK. Within the context of pension planning, we investigate saving for retirement patterns in relation to ethnicity, gender and age. We use data from the Family Resources Survey (FRS) to analyse employment status, income, saving types and levels. Although we ﬁnd profound heterogeneity, ethnic minorities show higher levels of unemployment, lower income and consistently lower levels of saving for retirement compared to our white control group. Disadvantages of ethnic minorities during their working life persist, especially for women, although to a lesser extent than in the past, and continue to affect private savings and prospective retirement income. Indian and Chinese men have experienced the greatest improvements in terms of employment status and income and this is reﬂected in higher levels of saving for retirement since the mid 1990s.