Working paper series

Jane Chang and Jacqueline Lynch

Are eco-tourists different? A study of marketing communications effectiveness in destination selection

This paper builds on previous research on the effectiveness of the communications mix and sources of information used by tourists in destination selection. It argues that a differentiated marketing promotional strategy is required for each of the different destination sites within a country and that the product life cycle model is a useful concept for destination marketing strategy formation.

Data collection for this exploratory research was obtained from a survey carried out in an internationally recognized eco-tourism destination, the state of Sabah in Malaysia. Correspondent and MANOVA analysis revealed significant differences between international and domestic tourists. Key findings highlight that the effectiveness of the media chosen and the source of information consulted in destination selection varied with the site chosen which may be related to its stage of "newness".

Dr Wilson Ng

Intuitive perception and the competitive advantage of small family businesses: An exploratory study

We assess the closeness of perceptions between managers and customers of two small family-owned businesses ("FBs") and two larger non-FBs in Sardinia, Italy, in exploring how local retail shops may compete against international superstores.  While the decline of small, High Street businesses has been widely reported, we present a more nuanced perspective of their competitiveness by suggesting how these typically family-run businesses may in fact hold a competitive advantage over larger non-FBs based on a well-developed "perceptive concordance" with their customers.  Perceptive concordance can result from a process of customer feedback and informed action that produces deep, tacit knowledge of customers' preferences.  Drawing on this knowledge, owner-managers of our two non-FBs were able to anticipate and stock products that were most sought by their customers.  By contrast, competing non-FBs offered a large, generic range of products that was less popular with their customers.  Our view has scholarly and managerial implications in the way that both FBs and non-FBs may gain competitive advantage by developing their perceptive concordance with customers to secure their ongoing support.

Fefie Dotsika

The next generation of the web: an organisational perspective

The web has revolutionised information sharing, management, interoperability and knowledge discovery. The union of the two prominent web frameworks, Web 2.0 and the Semantic Web is often referred to as Web 3.0. This paper explores the basics behind the two paradigms, assesses their influence over organisational change and considers their effectiveness in supporting innovative solutions. It then outlines the challenges of combining the two web paradigms to form Web 3.0 and critically evaluates the impact that Web 3.0 will have on the social organisation. The research carried out follows action research principles and adopts an investigative and reviewing approach to the emerging trends and patterns that develop from the web's changing use, examining the underpinning enabling technologies that facilitate access, innovation and organisational change.

Suleman A. Lodhi and Elayne Coakes

Dynamics of Knowledge Sharing in a Cross-Cultural Environment

Studies have indicated that national culture may impact the choice of who shares knowledge with whom. This paper considers the problem of tacit knowledge sharing in multi-cultural environments and the issues that relate to trust, language, and culture that impact on the choice of how tacit knowledge is shared. A study was conducted in a multinational, international, and multi-cultural Business School to discover if the theoretical research relating to a potential tacit and thus implicit knowledge sharing archetype had validity. The study conducted with 70 students from 28 nations and 24 languages, discovered that there were a number of variables that impacted who students chose to ask for (academic) tacit knowledge: these variables indicated that the longer that students spent in the Business School, the longer they were in London and the UK, the older they were, the less they were concerned about the nationality, ethnicity, and language of the person they asked. Additionally, testing the knowledge archetype model it was found that there were no moderating factors. This indicates that a knowledge archetype that is common to all nationalities can be developed. Future research intends to develop a configurable technical based archetype - or avatar - that can be utilised by students as they enter university for implicit knowledge sharing purposes. This avatar will then be tested in multi-cultural business environment to assist tacit/implicit knowledge sharing across divisions and nation as well as languages and culture.

Trino-Manuel Niguez and Javier Perote

The Moment Expansions: A Semi-nonparametric Method with Applications for Risk Management

This paper presents a novel family of semi-nonparametric (SNP) distributions whose polynomials are defined as the difference of the n-th power of the variable and the n-th moment of the density being expanded.

We show that the so-obtained Moment Expansions (ME) pdf exhibits empirical and theoretical advantages derived from its simple and general specification that make it a useful alternative to existing SNP pdfs. We test the general applicability of our approach through a comparative empirical application for forecasting financial risk.

We show that a Normal ME-model presents a relatively good forecasting performance that together with its statistical features makes it a useful methodology in risk management.

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